Electric forkliftsare forklifts that use energy from the battery to handle loads and have the ability to operate smoothly, gently, and do not create harmful emissions for users and the environment. That’s why today, the electric forklifts are extremely popular in the manufacturing, logistics and storage industries.

However, not everyone really understands the structure and how the electric forklift works. The following article will provide useful information about electric forklifts to ensure that you operate your truck safely with the best performance.

1. Classification of electric forklifts:

In general, electric forklifts are now divided into two main groups: stand-on and seated:

– Electric stand-on forklifts: As the name suggests, this model does not have a driver’s seat. The truck is compactly designed to be suitable for use in both large and narrow spaces. Stand-on electric forklifts are also divided into two groups: those with a platform and those with a cabin.

– Electric seated forklifts:  Contrary to stand-on electric forklifts, the driver’s cab is equipped with comfortable seats for the operator. In addition, the truck is also equipped with other smart features such as automatic transmission, control panel, operator presence system,… As a result, the process of operating the electric forklift while driving will be easier and more comfortable.

2. Structure of electric forklifts:

Electric forklift structure

Electric forklifts structure

Today, an electric forklift is a lifting device widely used in handling goods. Although each manufacturer will have electric forklift models with their own designs, they all share some basic structure. The following are the important components that make up an electric forklifts:


The mast is a vertical assembly installed in the front of the forklift, responsible for lifting and lowering goods as well as supporting the fork. Therefore, this part is firmly built from materials with good bearing capacity. Thus, it is possible to ensure operational efficiency and ensure safety for users.

There are 2 basic types of mast including limited free lift and full free lift. Besides, depending on the purpose of use, the lifting height, customers can choose 2 stages, 3 stages and 4 stages.


The carriage supports the mast that is responsible for lifting the goods. This unit is made from thick steel to ensure that it can withstand large loads and contribute to the protection of goods during lifting.


The fork is the part of the electric forklift that directly acts on the pallets of goods during the operation of the truck. Almost L-like shape, attached to the lift by latches.


This is a very important part of an electric forklift. The counterweight has the function of balancing the forklift during handling goods.

Overhead Guard:

The overhead guard on the electric forklift is made from sturdy metal which protects the safety of the driver, to help avoid falling objects from above as well as impacts from the outside.


Electric forklifts need an electric motor to operate. This engine is a closed motor system integrated inside the truck. Different truck models use different electric motors.

Control system:

The forklift control system helps to connect the user with the truck’s engine. This system operates through magnetic sensors and an internal control board system.

Controller board:

Control boards contain electronic chips. This system of boards communicates with each other through chips to transmit signals from the driver to the forklift’s components.


Electric forklift wheels are made from high quality PU plastic or rubber. The wheel system on electric forklifts includes load wheels and steering wheels to help the truck move smoothly during operation.

3. Working principle of electric forklifts:

To operate an electric forklift effectively, drivers need to understand the working principle of the truck. Electric forklifts use electricity provided by the battery. The electric motor used in the vehicle is either DC or AC. Charging time for the battery ranges from 6-8 hours.

Electric forklifts use electricity provided by the battery

Electric forklifts use electricity provided by the battery

Electric forklifts have two main forms of operation: moving goods from one place to another and lifting goods from low to high (and vice versa). In which, the most important is the function of lifting and lowering goods at certain heights. Specifically, the process goes like this:

– First, the fork is inserted into the pallet position. The hydraulic oil pump unit pushes the oil into the lifting cylinder. As a result, the lift column of the vehicle is pushed up. At that time, the pillars slide up high with the help of heat-resistant grease and rollers.

– The chain in the engine moves thanks to the flywheel system. The roller on the fork lift will follow, pulling the fork and pallet up.

– During the lifting of the pallet, the tilt cylinder will recline to keep the pallet and its contents from tipping forward.

– When reaching the height, the hydraulic oil pump unit stops pushing oil into the lifting cylinder. The operator uses the fork to bring the goods to the required position.

– Lifting is finished. The remaining oil in the lifting cylinder will be returned to the tank. The cylinder descends low and returns the mast to its original position.

Through the above article, hopefully you have useful knowledge about electric forklifts. Any concerns about electric forklifts and the operation of forklifts in general, please do not hesitate to contact us via Hotline: 0896.461.728. Yale Forklifts Vietnam always ready to help and answer all your questions!

Yale Forklifts Vietnam

Head office: 39 Nguyen Binh Khiem, ward 1, Go Vap district, HCMC

Showroom and Service center 1: Lot O1, no.9, Song Than industrial park, Di An, Binh Duong.

Ha Noi Branch: CO Office, 8th Floor, Tower C, Ho Guom Plaza Building, 102 Tran Phu, Mo Lao Ward, Ha Dong District, Hanoi City

Showroom & Service center 2: TC06, Lot DX2, General Department Area 5, Tan Trieu Ward, Thanh Tri District, Ha Noi

Binh Dinh Office and Service Center: Phong Tan village, Phuoc Loc commune, Tuy Phuoc district, Binh Dinh

Hotline: 0896.461.728

Email: info@yale.com.vn

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